Pneumonia Diagnostics and Pharmacological Treatment

Pneumonia Diagnostics and Pharmacological Treatment

Introduction: Etiology of the Diagnosis

Pneumonia is a highly prevalent disease that can be caused by different pathogens. The most common potential cause might be Streptococcus pneumonia or any type of Gram-positive bacteria that can be acquired from the hospital environment or community (Cilloniz, Martin-Loeches, Garcia-Vidal, Jose, & Torres, 2016). Thus, it can incur due to intracellular pathogens such as Legionella pneumophila and Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Cilloniz et al., 2016). Additionally, pneumonia may be caused by co-pathogens that are accompanied by influenza such as staph aureus or have viral nature (Woo & Robinson, 2016). Thus, they are not triggers in this case due to differences in symptomatology. Pneumonia Diagnostics and Pharmacological Treatment



Pathophysiology of the Diagnosis

Generally speaking, pneumonia incurs due to the invasion of the lung parenchyma by different pathogens while the defense mechanism of the host organism is weak. In the context of the presented case, Bacterial Pneumonia appears due to the changes in the defense mechanism that can be caused by immunological issues or viral infection (Woo & Robinson, 2016). Thus, the viruses can be acquired in the hospital environment or from the community using aspiration or inhalation of the pathogen (Cilloniz et al., 2016). A combination of these aspects explains its high prevalence among adults.

Epidemiology of the Disease

Bacterial or community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a disease with a high worldwide prevalence with the occurrence rate of 2.7 to 10 per 1000 people (Pletz, Rohde, Welte, Kolditz, &Ott, 2016). It is accompanied by chills, fatigue, and cough. This type of pneumonia is commonly observed among adults of the age of 24-65+, and in 2014, it was defined as the fourth cause of mortality in the United States of America (Cilloniz et al., 2016). For example, 257,000 adults at the age of 45-64 years old were diagnosed with pneumonia in 2010 while 621,000 adults over 65 were also hospitalized with this condition (Broulette, Yu, Pyeson, Iwasaki, & Sato, 2013). Pneumonia Diagnostics and Pharmacological Treatment

Thus, this disease is also highly prevalent among children while killing 920,136 of them in 2015 (Cilloniz et al., 2016). In this instance, the major risk factors pertain to the age (older than 65 or younger than 2), hospitalization, smoking, and different chronic diseases. To prevent the occurrence of this condition, it is reasonable to avoid communication with infected individuals and have a healthy lifestyle.

Diagnostic Criteria

There are a plethora of factors that help identify pneumonia. In the first place, physical examination such as pulse, respiration rate, and temperature are the first indicators of any disease. In turn, having a conversation with a patient about his/her condition such as shortness of breath, malaise, and presence of sputum will be positive indicators of pneumonia (Woo & Robinson, 2016). Medical history would help discover whether, in the past, the cases of pneumonia or antibiotic usage took place or the presence of commodities. In turn, chest radiography (x-ray) should be used for all patients suspected with CAP, and it should be repeated if a patient shows negative dynamics (Gupta et al., 2012). Pneumonia Diagnostics and Pharmacological Treatment

In the case of complications, CT has to be performed(Gupta et al., 2012). All patients have to pass blood tests to assess their blood cultures and monitor Leukocytosis and blood glucose(Gupta et al., 2012). Sputum Gram stain has to be collected for the analysis from all hospitalized patients with CAP(Gupta et al., 2012). In the case of the severe progression of the disease, Legionella urinary sample will be required(Gupta et al., 2012). Electrolyte, urea, and liver function assessments also have to be performed(Gupta et al., 2012). A combination of these factors helps select the most appropriate treatment and prevent CAP from developing.

Goals of the Drug Therapy

The major aims of drug therapy are to diminish the issues with breathing and return to the initial respiratory status (Woo & Robinson, 2016). Another objective is to diminish fever and return the body temperature to the normal state within 2-4 days (Woo & Robinson, 2016). Another essential goal is the fact that the treatment should cause the resolution of Leukocytosis by the fourth day since the start of the treatment. In turn, the chest x-ray is expected to return to its normal condition within 4-6 weeks after the beginning of taking the prescribed medication (Woo & Robinson, 2016). Overall, these goals will return the organism of normal functioning Pneumonia Diagnostics and Pharmacological Treatment